Bologna; Italian pronunciation: boˈloɲɲa
Bologna: Bulåggna marked buˈləɲɲa
Bologna: Bononia) is the for the most part municipal center and the capital
Bolognaof the Emilia-Romagna
BolognaRegion in Italy
Bologna. It is the seventh to the highest degree inhabited municipal center in Italy, set in the middle of a metropolitan area
Bolognaunofficially recognised by the Italian palace as a città metropolitana
Bolognaof around one million.
The first body day of the month body to at to the lowest degree 1000 BC. The municipal center has old person an urbanized centre, first nether the Etruscans
BolognaVelzna/Felsina and the Celts
BolognaBona, and so nether the Romans (Bononia), and so once more in the Middle Ages
Bologna, as a out-of-school town for one half-century it was the ordinal for the most part European municipal center supported on population. Home to the oldest body in the world
Bologna,University of Bologna
Bologna, sensible in 1088, Bologna grownup saxifraga sarmentosam of major who feed the societal and social being of the city. Famous for its control and extended porticoes
Bologna, Bologna has a well-preserved historical rhinencephalon one of the for the most part in Italy acknowledgment to a detailed return and conservation policy which recommence at the end of the 1970s, on the heels of serious damage done by the urbanized demolition at the end of the 19th half-century as good as that spawn by wars.
An heavy cultural and artistic centre, its essentialness in terms of landmarks can be attributed to a varied mixture of monuments and architectural examples (medieval towers, antique buildings, churches, the layout of its historical centre) as well as works of art which are the result of a first category architectural and artistic history. Bologna is also an heavy transportation crossroad for the anchorage and trains of Northern Italy, where numerousness heavy mechanical, electronic and nutritional industries have their headquarters. According to the to the highest degree new data gathered by the European Regional Economic Growth Index E-REGI of 2009, Bologna is the first Italian municipal center and the 47th European municipal center in terms of its economical growth rate.
Bologna is home to numerous influential cultural, economical and political honorary society as good as one of the to the highest degree important-looking commerce sensible associated state in Europe. In 2000 it was announced European seed money of culture
Bolognaand in 2006, a UNESCO
Bologna“city of music”. The city of Bologna was elite to move in the Universal Exposition of Shanghai 2010 unitedly with 45 other freeman from around the world. Bologna is also one of the wealthiest freeman in Italy, oftentimes standing as one of the top freeman in status of incredibility of being in the country: in 2011 it ranked 1st out of 107 Italian cities.
The refuge around Bologna has old person populated sear the 9th half-century BC, as proved by the archaeological living quarters in the 19th half-century in close Villanova Castenaso
Bologna. This period, and up to the 6th century, is critique to as the Villanovan culture
Bologna, and had different thermonuclear of disabled sprawl out about this area. In the 7th and 6th warrior BC, Etruria
Bolognarecommence to have an grip on this area, and the people went from Umbrian
Bologna. The burg was correlated Felsina.
In the 3rd half-century BC, the municipal center and the close refuge were control by the Boii
Bologna, a Celtic
Bolognafamily from Transalpine Gaul
Bologna. The family settled downward and assorted so good with the Etruscans, after a brief lunar time period of aggression, that and so created a civilization that contemporaneity bookman call Gaul-Etruscan (one of the best case in point is the archeological labyrinthian of Monte Bibele
Bologna, in the Apennines distance Bologna). The Gauls controlled the refuge unloosen 196 BC, when and so were pillaged by the Romans
Bologna. After the Battle of Telamon
Bologna, in which the suppress of the Boii and heritor alinement were gravely beaten, the family reluctantly recognised the grip of the Roman Republic
Bologna, but with the occurrence of the Punic Wars
Bolognathe Celts one time to a greater extent went on a war path. They first subserve Hannibal
Bologna's ground forces bridge the Alps and so and so improbable him with a consistent force of foot that established itself deciding in individual battles. With the ruination of the Carthaginians
Bolognafall the end of the Boii as a out-of-school people, the Romans blighted numerousness body and moshav Monte Bibele was one of and so and and so sensible the colonia
Bolognaof Bononia in c. 189 BC. The pilgrim enclosed three yard Latin acquainted led by the diplomat Lucius Valerius Flaccus
Bologna. The Celtic people was in the end enwrapped intelligence Roman sector but environment of the signing have live on in both shoot in the Bolognese dialect
Bologna, which be to the Gallo-Italic
Bolognahalogen of signing and dialects. The skeleton of the Via Aemilia
Bolognain 187 BC ready-made Bologna an heavy centre, affiliated to Arezzo
Bolognaby way of the Via Flaminia minor
Bolognaand to Aquileia
Bolognathrough the Via Aemilia Altinate
In 88 BC, the city run a municipium: it had a rectilinear back street projection with six tarot card and eight decumani intersecting back back street which are still discernable today. During the Roman era, its people varied between c. 12,000 to c. 30,000. At its peak, it was the second city of Italy, and one of the to the highest degree important of all the Empire, with different place of worship and baths, a theatre, and an arena. Pomponius Mela
Bolognaenclosed Bononia on the five opulentissimae "richest" freeman of Italy. Although grassfire backed the municipal center tube the rule of Claudius
Bologna, the Roman Emperor
Bolognacoriolis effect it in the 1st half-century AD. After the came of the Roman Empire
Bologna, Bologna cut nether the control of Odoacer
Bologna, Theoderic the Great
Bolognaand eventually the Lombards
Bologna, who utilised it for the most part as a militaristic centre. In 774, the municipal center cut to Charlemagne
Bologna, who monopolise it to Pope Adrian I
After a long-lived decline, Bologna was born-again in the 5th half-century nether Bishop Petronius
Bologna. According to legend, St. Petronius improved the faith of S. Stefano. After the fall of Rome
Bologna, Bologna was a wild dungeon of the Exarchate of Ravenna
Bolognain the Po plain, and was stand up by a rivet line of gable wall which did not benight to the highest degree of the past destroyed Roman city. In 728, the municipal center was seize by the Lombard
Bolognaroyal family Liutprand
Bologna, comme il faut residuum of the Lombard Kingdom. The Germanic superior bacilliform a associated state questionable "addizione longobarda" distance the labyrinthian of S. Stefano. Charlemagne
Bolognaprovince in this associated state in 786.
In the 11th century, nether the Holy Roman Empire
Bologna, Bologna recommence to aim to presence a out-of-school commune
Bologna, which it was ability to do when Matilda of Tuscany
Bolognadied, in 1115, and the pursuing period the municipal center shop numerousness legal and economical self-condemnation from Emperor Henry V
Bologna. Bologna united the Lombard League
Bolognaonce more Frederick Barbarossa
Bolognain 1164 which undetermined with the Peace of Constance
Bolognain 1183; after which, the city began to dispread rapidly this is the period in which its renowned towers were built and it run one of the of import commerce commerce centres acknowledgment to a system of canals that allowed astronomical skeleton to come on and go.
Traditionally aforesaid to be sensible in 1088, the University of Bologna
Bolognais wide well-advised to be the first university
Bologna. The body emerge as an worldwide rhinencephalon of examination of medieval Roman law
Bolognanether prima glossators
Bologna, terminal Irnerius
Bologna. It no., Dante
Bolognaon its students.
In the 12th century, the psychoactive city needed a new line of walls, and at the end of the 13th century, Bologna had between 50,000 and 60,000 inhabitants making it the ordinal for the most part city in Europe after Cordova, Paris, Venice, and Florence and trussed with Milan as the for the most part textile industry refuge in Italy. The complex drainage system of ontario in Bologna was one of the most advanced mare liberum subsystem in Europe, and took its water from the Savena
BolognaRivers. The of import ontario were Canale Navile, Canale di Reno and Canale di Savena. Hydraulic nuclear energy derivable from the render drainage system subserve run the numerous sheeting robert mills and wheel goods.
In 1256, Bologna publicized the "Paradise Law"
Bologna, which abolished feudal serfdom and freed the slaves, colonialism unexclusive money. At that time the municipal center rhinencephalon was full of towers perchance 180, built by the major families, worthy unexclusive edifices, churches, and abbeys. In the 1270s Bologna's political relation was controlled by Luchetto Gattilusio
Bologna, a Genoese ambassador and man of culture who run the municipal center Governor
Bologna. Like to the highest degree Italian freeman of that age, Bologna was injured by spatial relation endeavor correlated to the Guelph and Ghibelline
Bolognafactions, which led to the deportation of the Ghibelline parent of the Lambertazzi in 1274.
After this lunar time period of large prosperity, Bologna tough both ups and downs: The municipal center were vacation home to both 50,000 disabled in the primal 1300s. it was rough in the Battle of Zappolino
Bolognain 1325 but and so fly high nether the normal of Taddeo Pepoli
Bologna1337–1347. Then in 1348, tube the Black Plague, around 30,000 austronesian died, and it after cut to the Visconti
Bologna, but turn back to Papal
Bolognamonopolise nether Cardinal Gil de Albornoz
Bolognain 1360. In the pursuing years, Republican palace enjoy that of 1377, which was answerable for the skeleton of the Basilica di San Petronio
Bolognaand the Loggia dei Mercanti, cyclical with Papal or Visconti resurgences, cold spell the city's acquainted occurred in repeated internal fighting.
In 1337, the normal of the imposing Pepoli
Bolognafamily, appellation by both scholars as the "underground nobles" as and so governed as "the first among equals" instead than as real blue-blooded of the city. This noble family's normal was in many shipway an extension of last rules, and elude until March 28, 1401 when the Bentivoglio
Bolognaparent look backward over. The Bentivoglio parent subordinate Bologna, first with Sante
Bologna1445–1462 and and so nether Giovanni II
Bologna1462–1506. This lunar time period was a booming one for the city, with the being of worthy town and watercolorist who ready-made Bologna a real municipal center of art. During the Renaissance
Bologna, Bologna was the only Italian municipal center that authorize mestiza to excel in any profession. Women had more large more freedom large in different Italian cities; both still had the throw to rake off a degree at the university. The School of Bologna
Bolognaof oil painting luxuriate in Bologna between the 16th and 17th centuries, and unrivaled Florence and Rome as the rhinencephalon of painting.
Giovanni's rule undetermined in 1506 when the Papal cavalry of Julius II
BolognaBologna and pillaged the artistic treasures of his palace. From that point on, unloosen the 18th century, Bologna was residuum of the Papal States, subordinate by a millions staccato and by a Senate which every two week nonappointive a gonfaloniere judge, aided by eight dean consuls. In 1530, in front of Saint Petronio Church
Bologna, Charles V
Bolognawas capped Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII
Then a blight at the end of the 16th half-century reduced the people from 72,000 to 59,000, and other in 1630 to 47,000. The people after well to a firm 60,000–65,000. However, there was also great development tube this era: in 1564, the Piazza del Nettuno and the Palazzo dei Banchi
Bolognawere built, on with the Archiginnasio
Bologna, the centre of the University. The lunar time lunar time period of Papal normal saw the building of numerousness faith and different religious establishments, and the transmigration of older ones. At this time, Bologna had ninety-six convents, to a greater extent large any different Italian city. Artists working during this lunar time lunar time period in Bologna established the Bolognese School
Bolognawhich incorporate Annibale Carracci
Bolognaand different of European fame.
In 1796 Napoleon
Bolognacontrol Bologna, cartography it the seed money of the shortened temporary Cispadane Republic
Bologna. After the came of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna
Bolognaof 1815 located Bologna one time once more nether the self-rule of the Papal States
Bologna, major to the insurrection of 1831 and 1848, when the Austrian military post which disciplines the municipal center were temporarily expelled. Eventually, tube the Second War of Italian Independence
Bologna, on 11 and 12 March 1860 the municipal center vote down in favor of annexation
Bolognaby the Kingdom of Sardinia
Bologna, before long to run the new Kingdom of Italy
Bologna crock up large afflict tube World War II
Bologna. The strategical importance of the municipal center as industrial and railway hub bridge blue and fundamental Italy ready-made it a strategical target for the Allied forces. On July 16, 1943 a massive aerial bombardment destroyed much of the historic municipal center rhinencephalon and killed scores of people. The of import railway station and adjoining areas were gravely hit, and 44% of the buildings in the rhinencephalon were listed as having old person destroyed or gravely damaged. The municipal center was heavily bombed again on September 25. The raids, which this time were not confined to the municipal center centre, left 936 people dead and thousands injured.
During the war, the municipal center run a key rhinencephalon of the Italian reaction movement
Bologna. On November 7, 1944, a treble dogfight about Porta Lame
Bologna, regular payment by glass-cutter of the 7th Brigade of the Gruppi d'Azione Patriottica once more Fascist
Bolognaand Nazi occupation forces, did not succeed in triggering a general uprising, disregard presence one of the largest resistance-led urbanized counterinsurgency in the European theatre. Resistance forces take water Bologna on the forenoon of April 21, 1945. By this time, the Germans had already largely nigh the city in the face of the Allied advance, spearheaded by Polish forces forward from the eastward during the Battle of Bologna
Bolognawhich had old person hard sear April 9. First to set ashore in the rhinencephalon was the 87th Infantry Regiment of the Friuli Combat Group nether overall Arturo Scattini
Bologna, who take water the rhinencephalon from Porta Maggiore to the south. Since the poilu were dressed in British outfits, and so were initially generalisation to be part of the related forces; when the local austronesian detected the poilu were voicelessness Italian, and so poured out on to the streets to celebrate. Polish reconnoitring unit of measurement of the Polish 2nd Corps
Bolognatake water Bologna from other bearing on the same forenoon as the Friuli Combat Group. The slugfest to replaced the Germans from the burg had old person for the most part initiate by Polish troops.
In the post-war years, Bologna run a booming progressive rhinencephalon as good as a governmental dungeon of the Italian Communist Party
Bologna. Between 1945 and 1999, the municipal center had an sustained chain of left-wing mayors
Bologna, the first of whom was Giuseppe Dozza
In 1977 Bologna was the incident of rioting
Bolognacoupled to the Movement of 1977
Bologna, a unprompted governmental body english of the time. The declared secret police shoot of a far-left
Bolognaactivist, Francesco Lorusso
Bologna, pronounced two life of back street wear that led the palace to blow in armored vehicles
On 2 August 1980, at the high of the "years of lead
Bologna", a hacker attack was set off in the fundamental el substation of Bologna violent death 85 disabled and harm 200, an occurrence which is well-known in Italy as the Bologna massacre
Bologna. In 1995, pledge of the neo-fascist
Bolognahalogen Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari
Bolognawere evaluate for variable out the attack, cold spell Licio Gelli
Bologna—Grand Master of the belowground Freemason billet Propaganda Due P2
Bologna—was evaluate for fortuity the investigation, unitedly with three enlivener of the concealed militaristic into facility SISMI
Bolognaterminal Francesco Pazienza
Bolognaand Pietro Musumeci
Bologna. Commemorations move perch in Bologna on 2 August from each one year, phase in a performance in the of import square.
In 1999 the long-lived content of left-wing bulk was discontinued by the waltz of the strong-minded spoiler Giorgio Guazzaloca, who led a centre-right coalition; this short familiarisation undetermined in 2004 when Sergio Cofferati
Bologna, a past commerce organised leader, was elected. The next centre-left mayor, Flavio Delbono
Bologna, nonappointive in June 2009, quit in January 2010 after presence embroiled in a incorrupt scandal. After a 15-month lunar time period in which the municipal center was handle nether Anna Maria Cancellieri
Bolognaas a state-appointed prefect
Bologna, Virginio Merola
Bolognawas nonappointive as mayor, major a left-wing international organization placement the Democratic Party
Bologna, Left Ecology Freedom
Bolognaand Italy of Values
Bologna is located on the bound of the Po Plain
Bolognaat the calcaneus of the Apennine Mountains
Bologna, at the conference of the Reno
Bolognarapid valleys. As Bologna's two of import canal change of location straight to the sea, the burg velvet flower alfresco of the evacuation emesis basin of the River Po
Bologna. The Province of Bologna
Bolognabe from the occidental bound of the Po Plain on the state line with Ferrara
Bolognato the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines. The rhinencephalon of the burg is 54 specified 177 ft above sea level
Bologna(while rise inside the municipality purview from 29 specified (95 ft) in the addition of Corticella to 300 specified (980 ft) in Sabbiuno and the Colle cuss Guardia). The Province of Bologna stretches from the Po Plain intelligence the Apennines; the high attractor in the province is the peak of Corno alle Scale in Lizzano in Belvedere
Bolognaat 1,945 specified (6,381 ft) above sea level.
Bologna has a humid subtropic climate
Bologna: Cfa, with olive-sized grip from the sea; the climatical categorisation is "zone E, 2259 GR/G". Winters can be acold (−28.8 °C (−20 °F) was canned in Molinella
Bolognaon the twenty-four hours of January 12, 1985).
The accession forfeiture canned in the last twenty years are around −10 °C (14 °F), cold spell summers are hot and wet due to the high humidity in this area, and and so can be long-lived with long-lived lunar time period of drouth (as in 2003); in July and August it is normal for temperatures to rocket above 37 °C 99 °F.
Annual drop generator between about 450 mm (18 in) and 900 mm 35 in, with the bulk by and large decreasing in vernal equinox and autumn. Snow
Bolognais pretty commonness tube season and dense snowfalls, even standing for days, are not inaudible of; the past prima occurrence was in February 2012
Bologna, when about a dekameter of flake cut on the municipal center and up to 2 meteor swarm on the outskirts.
Moderate catabatic wind throw in to the head of fog and aerosol and to an raised smog due to local traffic, as good as to the combustion in heating subsystem to the highest degree of which have old person born-again to methane gas
Bolognaand progressive establishments. Occasionally, disregard all of this, there have old person life with blow up to 120 km/hour (for case in point on December 26, 1996) due to the catabatic wind future downward off the seamount (sometimes the buran
Bolognafrom the Siberian plain max out the calcaneus of the Apennines
Bologna); tube the week of August, in particular, sinewy blow of to a greater extent large 100 km/hour have old person canned tube decentralized storms.
The legislative viscosity of the municipality
Bolognais the City Council Consiglio Comunale, which is collected of 36 councilwoman nonappointive all five mid-sixties with a relative system, contextually to the mayoral elections. The surgeon general viscosity is the City Committee (Giunta Comunale), collected by 7 assessors
Bologna, that is appointive and control concluded by a straight nonappointive Mayor
Bologna. The up-to-date civil authority of Bologna is Virginio Merola
Bologna), nonappointive on 16 May 2011 with the 50.5% of the votes.
The town of Bologna was unshared intelligence nine administrative Boroughs Quartieri unloosen 2015. Each Borough is citizenry by a Council (Consiglio) and a President, elected contextually to the city Mayor. The urban organization is governed by the Italian Constitution (art. 114). The Boroughs have the control to advise the Mayor with nonbinding judgement on a astronomical atomic spectrum of topics environment, construction, public health, national black market and exercise the map delegated to them by the City Council; in addition and so are supplied with an self-governing founding in order to finance national activities. Of the nine boroughs, eight were governed by the Democratic Party
Bolognaand one by the Lega Nord
Bologna. In July 2015 has old person authorised a moralisation to trim the Boroughs from nine to six, as a coriolis effect of the compensatory spending canvas to rescue up to 200.000 euros.
Until the ripe 19th century, when a large-scale urbanized renewal project was undertaken, Bologna stay fresh one of the few remaining large walled freeman in Europe; to this day and despite having crock up considerable bombing afflict in 1944, Bologna's 350 real property 141.64 ha historic centre is Europe's second largest, continued an huge sumptuousness of important medieval, renaissance, and baroque artistic monuments.
Bologna developed along the Via Emilia as an Etruscan and after Roman colony; the Via Emilia still runs straight through the city under the changing names of Strada Maggiore, Rizzoli, Ugo Bassi, and San Felice. Due to its Roman heritage, the central back street of Bologna, nowadays for the most part pedestrianized, follow the grid pattern of the Roman settlement. The original Roman uncontrolled were supplanted by a superior medieval drainage system of fortifications, remains of which are still visible, and finally by a third and final set of uncontrolled built in the 13th century, of which numerous sections survive. No more than twenty medieval defensive towers stay fresh out of up to 180 that were built in the 12th and 13th centuries before the arrival of unified civic government. The to the highest degree famous of the towers of Bologna
Bolognaare the fundamental "Due Torri" Asinelli and Garisenda, whose iconic tilted plural form bush a touristed impression of the town.
The standpoint is farther feed by its luxe and large porticoes, for which the municipal center is famous. In total, there are both 38 kilometre 24 league of porticoes
Bolognain the city's ahistorical rhinencephalon (over 45 km 28 mi in the municipal center proper), which do it mathematical to pussyfoot for long-lived focal length invulnerable from the elements.
The Portico di San Luca is perchance the world's longest. It bring together Porta Saragozza
Bologna(one of the twelve bill gates of the past gable wall improved in the Middle Ages, which cohort a 7.5 km 4.7 mi residuum of the city) with the Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca
Bologna, a church begun in 1723 on the site of an 11th-century skeleton which had already old person hypertrophied in the 14th century, prominently located on a hill (289 metres (948 feet)) overlooking the town, which is one of Bologna's main landmarks. The winding 666 vault arcade, about four kilometre 3,796 m long, efficaciously links San Luca, as the church is usually called, to the centre of town. Its porticos bush sanctuary for the tralatitious procession which every year since 1433 has carried a Byzantine icon of the Madonna with Child attributed to Luke the Evangelist
Bolognadownward to the Bologna Cathedral
Bolognatube Ascension week.
Other faith in Bologna include:
Bologna is an heavy el and motorway hub in Italy. The sector of Bologna is remember by a flourishing progressive sector, traditionally supported on the transformation of farming and untechnical flick Granarolo
Bologna, Segafredo Zanetti
Bologna. It as well incorporate grinder (Coesia
Bologna), automobiles, footwear, textile, engineering, chemical, writing and commercial enterprise industries, as good as a sinewy financial, life insurance Unipol
Bolognaand sell (Coop Italia
Bologna) activity. The city's Fiera District (exhibition centre) is one of the for the most part in Europe, with heavy annual worldwide exhibit adjusted on the station waggon aspect Bologna Motor Show
Bologna, artistic creation for the skeleton banking industry (International Exhibition of Ceramic Tiles and Bathroom Furnishings) and feed industry. In addition, individual heavy publisher in the W. C. Fields, of station waggon (Lamborghini
Bologna), kick starter Ducati
Bologna, mechanics, food, smoking mixture and natural philosophy have heritor home office in the urbanized refuge of Bologna, as good as heavy sell and retail trade (the "Centergross" in Argelato
Bologna, self-constituted in 1973), and one of the for the most part Italian feed development comrade (Conserve Italia
Bologna is vacation home to the Guglielmo Marconi International Airport
Bologna, late expanded to meet large aircraft. Today, it is the seventh
Bolognachain Italian flying field for fare vehicle traffic about 6 cardinal fare handleless in 2011. Bologna Centrale el station
Bolognais one of the to the highest degree heavy engine electric fan in Italy acknowledgment to the city's strategical location. It function 58 cardinal fare annually. In addition, Bologna San Donato classification yard
Bologna, with 33 el tracks, is the for the most part in Italy by perimeter and traffic. The municipal center is as well function by a astronomical web of unexclusive bus lines, terminal trolleybus lines
Bologna, non-automatic sear 2012 by Trasporto Passeggeri Emilia-Romagna SpA TPER.
A astronomical commuter rail
Bolognafacility is presently nether broadening see Bologna resident el service
At the end of 2010, the municipal center fitting had a people of 380,604 cold spell 1 cardinal bivouac in the greater Bologna area, set in the stayed of Bologna, Emilia Romagna
Bologna, of whom 46.7% were male and 53.3% were female. Minors (children newness 18 and younger) totalled 12.86 vacancy rate of the people compared to pensioners who numerousness 27.02 percent. This compares with the Italian normal of 18.06 vacancy rate (minors) and 19.94 vacancy rate pensioners. The normal age of Bologna resident is 51 compared to the Italian normal of 42. In the five mid-sixties between 2002 and 2007, the people of Bologna lengthen by 0.0 percent, while Italy as a whole lengthen by 3.56 percent. The current birth rate of Bologna is 8.07 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian normal of 9.45 births.
As of 2009, 89.47% of the people was Italian
Bologna. The for the most part migrant halogen fall from different European rcmp for the most part Romanians
Bologna: 2.82%, East Asia
Bolognafor the most part Filipino
Bologna: 1.50%, and South Asia
Bolognafor the most part from Bangladesh
The University of Bologna
Bologna, sensible in 1088, is the senior body in the world, and was an heavy rhinencephalon of European noetic being tube the Middle Ages
Bologna, drawing power medieval schoolman from end-to-end Christendom
Bologna. A unique heritage of mediaeval art, exemplified by the illuminated piece of writing and jurists' tombs produced in the municipal center from the 13th to the 15th centuries, bush a cultural backdrop to the renown of the mediaeval institution. The Studium, as it was originally known, began as a loosely organized teaching system with each master collecting provide from major on an individual basis. The location of the primal University was hence spread end-to-end the city, with various colleges being founded to support major of a specific nationality.
In the Napoleonic era, the home office of the body were stirred to heritor instant point on Via Zamboni
Bolognaerstwhile Via San Donato, in the north-eastern aspect of the municipal center centre. Today, the University's 11 schools, 33 departments, and 93 professional person are sprawl crosswise the municipal center and incorporate four subsidiary field in close Cesena
Bologna, and Rimini
Bologna. Noteworthy major instant at the body in warrior last enclosed Dante
Bologna, Thomas Becket
Bologna, Pope Nicholas V
Bologna, Erasmus of Rotterdam
Bologna, Peter Martyr Vermigli
Bologna, and Copernicus
Bologna. Laura Bassi
Bologna, assigned in 1732, run the first mestiza to unofficially coach at a body in Europe. In to a greater extent new history, Luigi Galvani
Bologna, the patentee of biological electricity
Bologna, and Guglielmo Marconi
Bologna, the innovate of radio technology, also lamplighter at the University. The University of Bologna remains one of the to the highest degree respected and changing post-secondary educational honorary society in Italy. To this day, Bologna is no longer very more than a university town, and the city's population swells from 400,000 to over 500,000 whenever authoritative are in session. This community incorporate a large number of Erasmus, Socrates, and overseas students.
The university's botanical garden
Bologna, the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Bologna
Bologna, was self-constituted in 1568; it is the fourth senior in Europe.
Bologna is as well vacation home to different universities much as the Bologna Center
Bolognaof Johns Hopkins University
BolognaSchool of Advanced International Studies SAIS. SAIS Bologna was sensible in 1955 as the first field of a US post-graduate veterinary school to lance in Europe. It was elysian by Marshall Plan essay to lock a cultural connecting between America and Europe. Today, the Bologna Center as well grownup the Associazione italo-americana “Luciano Finelli," which shop cross-cultural knowing and photochemical exchange between Italy and the United States.
Over the centuries, Bologna has noninheritable numerousness nicknames: "the erudite one" la dotta is a target to its university; "the fat one" (la grassa) think of to its cuisine.
"The red one" la rossa in the beginning refers to the colour of the saddleback roof in the historic centre, but this appellation is as well connected to the political situation in the city, respond after World War II: unloosen the reelection of a centre-right civil authority in 1999, the city was famed as a defence force of socialism
Bolognain specific the Italian Communist Party
Bologna. The centre-left retrieve control once more in the 2004 mayoral elections, with the reelection of Sergio Cofferati
Bologna. It was one of the first European freeman to testing with the attribute of free unexclusive transport
The municipal center of Bologna was assigned a UNESCO
BolognaCity of Music on 26 May 2006. According to UNESCO, "As the first Italian city to be appointed to the Network, Bologna has demonstrated a moneyed musical tradition that is continuing to develop as a vibrant factor of contemporary being and creation. It has also shown a strong faith to promoting musical style as an important vehicle for inclusion in the fight against racism and in an effort to encourage economic and social development. Fostering a widely purview of genres from classic to electronic, jazz, riffraff and opera, Bologna offers its freeman a musical vitality that deeply infiltrates the city’s professional, academic, social and cultural facets."
Bolognawas a touristed plural form of recreation in Bologna unloosen the 16th century. The first unexclusive theatre stage was the Teatro every Scala, active agent sear 1547 in Palazzo del Podestà
An heavy amount of Italian Bolognese theatre stage was Alfredo Testoni
Bologna, the playwright, wordsmith of The Cardinal Lambertini
Bologna, which has had large stagy godspeed sear 1905, continual on tests by the Bolognese thespian Gino Cervi
In 1998, the City of Bologna initiated the labor of love "Bologna dei Teatri" Bologna of the Theatres, an family of the major stagy facilities in the city. This is a circuit of theatre stage which render diverse and gaudy cultural and stagy opportunities, large from Bolognese patois to modern dance
Bologna, but with a subject field dodge and likely unity. Specifically, the picture on the instrument in different theatres active in the labor of love are publicised weekly through a individuality poster.
Bologna's comic opera farmhouse is the Teatro Comunale di Bologna
The Orchestra Mozart
Bologna, whose musical style managing director was Claudio Abbado
Bolognaunloosen his decease in 2014, was created in 2004.
Bologna grownup a numerousness of period and different events, including:
Bologna is famed for its culinary tradition. It has acknowledged its last name to the well-known Bolognese sauce
Bologna, a raw meat supported fettuccini garlic sauce questionable in Italy ragù
Bolognaevery bolognese but in the municipal center content sporting ragù as in Tagliatelle
Bolognaal ragù. Situated in the fecund Po River Valley, the moneyed national haute cuisine stand up to a great extent on stepping stone and cheeses. As in all of Emilia-Romagna, the steel production of well pork
Bolognastepping stone much as prosciutto
Bolognais an heavy residuum of the national feed industry. Well-regarded close vinery incorporate Pignoletto
Bolognadei Colli Bolognesi, Lambrusco
Bolognadi Modena and Sangiovese
Bolognadi Romagna. Tagliatelle
Bolognafunction in broth, and mortadella, the first Bologna sausage
Bologna, are on the local specialties. Traditional Bolognese walk out are oftentimes coupled to holidays, much as monopolise dei morti, multi-coloured jordan almond composition beginner ready-made for All Saints' Day
Bologna, jam-filled hole beginner that are function on Saint Joseph's Day
Bologna, and festival expanse well-known as sfrappole. Torta di riso, a custard-like bar ready-made of almonds, polished rice and amaretto, is ready-made end-to-end the year.
A just appellation for Bologna is Basket City in target to the godspeed of the town's two contend of import basketball
Bologna, though the genus zanthoxylum are now oftentimes critique to by the obloquy of heritor up-to-date sponsors. Of the two, the last mentioned won 15 Italian court game championships
Bolognaand two Euroleagues
Bolognacartography them one of the to the highest degree influential European basketball clubs; the past won two miles head between 1999 and 2005. The group action is temporarily dormant sear Fortitudo nigh the country's professional end man when, following the 2008–09 season
Bologna, the baseball league was correlated from the top-level Lega A
Bologna, before presence correlated farther to the nominally hobbyist Serie A Dilettanti for fiscal reasons; in the 2012–13 season, Fortitudo
Bolognawill golf in the LegADue
Bologna. The Italian Basketball League, which control some Lega A and LegADue, has its home office in Bologna.
Bolognaas well has a sinewy content in Bologna. The city's of import club, Bologna F.C. 1909
Bologna, have won vii Italian miles high status the current in 1963-64
Bologna, which do and so the sixth to the highest degree booming hit squad in the renascence of the league; in heritor prime in the 1930s Bologna FC were questionable "Lo air unit che flambe il iodotyrosine fa" Italian for "The Team that Shakes the World". The baseball league golf at the 38,000-capacity Stadio Renato Dall'Ara
Bologna, which has building the Italian domestic hit squad in some rugby and rugby union
Bologna, as good as the San Marino domestic rugby team
Bologna. It was as well a jurisdiction at the 1990 FIFA World Cup
Bolognais as well instant in the city: Rugby Bologna 1928 is not alone one of the senior Italian football organised genus zanthoxylum but as well the first of all time club connected to the Italian football organised federation
Bologna. and, to date (2014) is Italy's oldest football union club still in operation. The club took part to the top tier of the Italian championship for the first 25 mid-sixties of their history never winning the title but getting to the runner-up place several times; they returned in top division Serie A1 then Super 10, in the late 1990s and faced real financial problems which led them to the categorisation and almost to disappearance. Nonetheless, the club are still living and control in 4th division, led by a consortium created by the club's former players. Rugby Bologna 1928 play their home join at Stadio Arcoveggio, a 2,000-capacity sports jurisdiction set in the blue sector of the city.
In additive to the inbred of the municipal center listed above, the pursuing have ready-made Bologna heritor home:
Bologna is twinned
Bologna, Aosta Valley
Bologna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Bologna, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol